Operation Polo was the name of the Indian Army’s covert operation in September 1948 in which the last Nizam of Hyderabad was overthrown from power and Hyderabad was made a part of India. It is worth noting that after the independence of India, when the Indian Union was being formed, the Nizam of Hyderabad had started trying to remain an independent country even though it was in the middle of India.
During the partition, Hyderabad was also one of those royal houses which were given complete independence, although in 1948 they were left with only two options to join India or Pakistan. Osman Ali Khan, the Muslim ruler and the last Nizam of the state with a mostly Hindu population decided to remain independent and decided to rule on the strength of his ordinary army. The Nizam formed an army of Razakars consisting mostly of Muslim soldiers.
The Government of India was eagerly looking toward Hyderabad and was thinking that the Nizam of Hyderabad would himself join the Union of India. But Sardar Patel decided to annex Hyderabad forcibly due to the ill-will of the Rajkaras army. Sardar Patel did this work by the police, which took only five days, and the Muslim army of Rajkaras was easily defeated.
There was widespread caste violence during the campaign, after the end of the campaign, Nehru formed a committee to investigate it, whose report became public in the year 2014. That is, the report was not even released, a Sunderlal committee was formed to prepare the report, according to the report, 27 to 40 thousand people were killed in this campaign, although the experts tell this figure to be more than two lakhs.
Under the influence of Jinnah, the leader of the Muslim League, the Nizam of Hyderabad, Nawab Bahadur Jung, did not accept democracy, the Nawab Kazmi Ramzi, who was the main leader of the MIM (Majlis Ethud Muslimeen), formed a Rajkars army, which was about two lakhs. Was. To increase the Muslim population, he looted Hyderabad and forcibly started committing rape and mass murder of Muslim Hindu women. Because Hindus want Hyderabad in India, the Mirpur Naukhaliya massacre (Muslims committed on Hindus) was in their place. Rajkars had killed more than five thousand Hindus, which is an official figure, the Nizam of Hyderabad was getting the help of arms and money from Pakistan through Myanmar.
The Australian company was also supplying weapons to them, then Patel decided that in this way Hyderabad would become a canker in the heart of India, and then Army Operation Polo was planned. It is said that after the operation, the army everywhere identified the Muslims and gave the answer to death. That is why till today this report has not been made public, Congress may have taken it out before the elections to take communal advantage.
Operation Polo or Operation Caterpillar was completed after India’s independence from 13 September 1948 to 18 September 1948 for the accession of the Muslim Nizam-ruled princely state of Hyderabad, a Hindu majority population.
It was an intelligence mission carried out by the Indian Army at the behest of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, which was called police action and prevented other countries from putting their feet in it.
Operation Polo Information
Operation Polo – 13 September 1948 – 18 September 1948
Merger State – Hyderabad
Main Leader – Nizam Mir Osman Ali Khan (Hyderabad),
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel (Dominion of India)
Operation Head from the Indian side – Major General Jayant Nath Choudhury.
After the independence of India in 1947, there was a princely state in India whose name was Hyderabad as you all must have heard that after independence all the princely states had the right to remain independent and the Nizam of Hyderabad State, Mir Osman Ali Khan separated from both India and Pakistan. Decided to stay in the country.
Nizam was the richest person in the world at that time, and he wanted to save his glory and wanted to live in a separate country for himself. He had also maintained an army of his own, which was called Razakar Sena.
The desire of the Islamic nation
They did not believe in democracy, they wanted an Islamic nation. For this, he also demanded the creation of a country of his own under the Commonwealth, from the then Indian Governor Lord Mountbatten, but he did not accept his demand.
The Government of India urged the Nizam of Hyderabad that you can run your state, but the Government of India will look after your foreign policy work and you do not have to have any relation with Pakistan.
Atrocities on Hindus
The desire of the Islamic nation had blinded these people, after which they started targeting communists and Hindus, thousands of Hindus were killed and women were raped.
Ask for help from America
The Nizam of Hyderabad did not stop here, he also sought help from US President Harry Truman, but due to no help from there, he started ordering weapons from Pakistan. Till now there was an agreement with Hyderabad that you should run your state now. Just the Government of India will see your foreign relations. Also, you don’t have to have any relationship with Pakistan. But the princely state of Hyderabad had also given crores of rupees to Pakistan. Due to this, both the parties kept accusing each other of breaking the agreement. The princely state alleged that the Indian government was besieging them from all sides. The government said that you are not even using our currency. Weapons are being imported from Pakistan. Razakar’s army is being built.
Operation polo plan
The Nizam continued to help Pakistan and even raised his own army and refused to carry Indian currency in his state. And then Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel lost his patience and he planned to attack Hyderabad overnight and Operation Polo happened.
The Razakar Army could last only 5 days in front of the Indian Army, after which they surrendered at Secunderabad. After which most of the leaders were sent to Pakistan, the rest were given asylum in India.
Nehru wanted to settle the matter through dialogue, but Sardar Patel did not have the patience to talk.
Mountbatten again placed an agreement in June 1948. According to this, everything will continue as it is. Nizam will remain head of state. But gradually the decision of the people will be brought. The Government of India agreed. But the Nizam was not ready. He wanted complete swaraj. For this, he also sought the help of the UN and US President Harry Truman. But not found. Those people didn’t say anything.
The Nizam was defeated and the princely state of Hyderabad merged with India. It is said that Muslims were massacred after the victory in this, but no fact of this has come to the fore yet.
Razakar chief Syed Qasim Rizvi can be considered the biggest reason for this because he had the ghost of the Islamic nation on his head, which was removed by the Indian Army in a jiffy.
35000 Indian Soldier vs. 22000 Hyderabadi Razakar
According to the Sunderlal committee, 30 to 40 thousand people had lost their lives in this.
Pakistan made a lot of ruckus in institutions like the United Nations regarding military action, but no one listened to it.
The Nizam had also sent a letter to Muhammad Ali Jinnah, he hoped that Jinnah would definitely help him, but there was no response from his side.
There were allegations against the Indian Army, the report came after 65 years
Major General Syed Ahmed of Hyderabad surrendered to Major General JN Choudhary of India
There were many allegations in this fight. It was alleged that the people of the army and civil had started looting and raping in Hyderabad. But all these things were not allowed to come out. Sunder Lal Committee was also formed for this. But it took 65 years for its report to come out! This report came out in 2013. According to many people, 10-40 thousand people were killed in this fight. Some say that close to two lakh people died!
The report has clearly given the details of robbery and rape in Hyderabad State. Hyderabad merged with India, but it had to pay a heavy price.
(In this story earlier, Qasim was mistakenly shown as Owaisi’s grandfather. While his grandfather’s name was Abdul Wahid Owaisi, he renamed the party after Qasim went to Pakistan and took over the responsibility.)