AMALGAMATION OF SIKKIM
Indian Army disarmed and disbanded the Royal Guard of the Sikkimese King, after which Sikkim joined India as the State of India.
Weather Sikkim · Information in India. Language and translation of India (BG) State in the south-east. English, Bhutia Khas language, Lipicha, Bhutia, Limbu Hindi language languages Hindu Baijayan religion The largest city is another.
Sikkim was an independent state ruled by the Nam Gyal Monarchy, but due to administrative problems and due to merger and referendum in India, it merged with India with a plebiscite in 1975. After the same referendum, the end of the monarchy and the emergence of democracy in the framework of the rule system of the Indian Constitution.
The population of Sikkim is the least among the states of India and the area is the least after Goa. Despite its small size, Sikkim is very diverse geographically. Kangchenjunga, which is the third highest peak in the world, is in the northwestern part of Sikkim on the border of Nepal and this mountain peak can be easily seen from many parts of the state. Sikkim is a major center of tourism in India due to the characteristics of being clean, natural beauty, political stability, etc.
The commonly accepted source of the word ‘Sikkim’ was formed by combining the Limbu words so (meaning “new”) and him (meaning “palace” or “house” – indicating the palace built by the first king of the region, Phuntsok Namgyal). Is. Sikkim is called the “Valley of Rice” in Tibetan.
The earliest account of the Buddhist monk Guru Rinpoche (Padmasambhava) visiting Sikkim in the 8th century is related to this. It is recorded that he preached Buddhism, blessed Sikkim, and predicted the kingdom to come a few centuries later. According to legend, in the 14th century, Khye Bumsa, a prince of the Minyak palace of Kham in eastern Tibet, was ordered to go south one night according to divine vision. His descendants established the monarchy in Sikkim.
In 1642, Phuntsong Namgyal, the fifth descendant of Khye, was proclaimed the first Chogyal (king) of Sikkim at Yuksom by three Buddhist monks who came from the north, east, and south. Thus began the monarchy in Sikkim. Phuntsong Namgyal’s son, Tensung Namgyal, succeeded him in 1670. Tensing shifted the capital from Yuksom to Rabdentse. In 1700, Bhutan’s half-sister of the Chogyal, who had been deprived of the throne, Between 1717 and 1733, Sikkim had to face several invasions from Nepal and Bhutan, which ultimately led to the downfall of Rabdentse. flag of the old monarchy of Sikkim.
In 1791, China sent its army to help Sikkim and save Tibet from the Gurkhas. After the defeat of Nepal, Sikkim became part of the Qing dynasty. After the British rule came to the neighboring country of India, Sikkim joined hands with it against its main enemy Nepal. Nepal invaded Sikkim and occupied many areas including Terai. Because of this, the East India Company invaded Nepal, which resulted in the Gurkha War of 1814.
The Sikkimese territory occupied by Nepal was returned to Sikkim in the year 1817 by the Treaty of Sugauli between Sikkim and Nepal and the Treaty of Titalia between Sikkim and British India. However, due to the imposition of taxes in the Morang region by the British, relations between Sikkim and British rule soured. In the year 1849, two British officers, Sir Joseph Dalton and Dr. Archibald Campbell, with the latter (Dr. Archibald) responsible for relations between Sikkim and the British government, entered the Sikkim mountains without permission or notice. Both these officers were taken captive by the Sikkim government. Angry British rule overran this Himalayan kingdom and annexed it with India in 1835. As a result of this ascent, the Chogyal became a puppet king under the British governor.
Sikkim’s accession to India was rejected by a popular vote in 1947, and the then Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru granted the status of a protectorate to Sikkim. Under this, India became a protectorate of Sikkim. India took over the responsibility of Sikkim’s foreign, diplomatic, or contract matters.
A State Council was established in 1955, under which the Chogyal was allowed to form a constitutional government. During this, a situation of disturbance arose in the state due to the demand for re-polling by the Sikkim National Congress and more representation for the Nepalis. Due to the riots in front of the Raj Bhavan in 1973, a formal request was made to the Government of India to provide protection to Sikkim. The Chogyal dynasty was proving highly unpopular in Sikkim. Sikkim was completely closed to the outside world and the outside world knew very little about Sikkim. Although the American climber was successful in smuggling some pictures and other legal documents of Gangtok. Thus the action of India came into the sight of the world. Although history had been written and the real situation was revealed to the world when the Qazi (Prime Minister) requested the Indian Parliament in 1975 to accept Sikkim as a state of India and give it representation in the Indian Parliament. In April 1975, the Indian Army entered Sikkim and captured Gangtok after disarming the palace guards. Within two days the entire state of Sikkim was under the control of the Government of India. The question of the inclusion of Sikkim in the Indian Republic was supported by 97.5 percent of the people of Sikkim. A few weeks later, on 16 May 1975, Sikkim formally became the 22nd state of the Republic of India, and the monarchy in Sikkim came to an end. Sikkim came into existence in 1642, when Phuntsong Namgyal was declared the first Chogyal (king) of Sikkim. Namgyal was proclaimed king by three Buddhist monks. In this way, the monarchy started in Sikkim. After which the Namgyal dynasty ruled Sikkim for 333 years.
The state formed in 1975
India gained independence in 1947. After this, different princely states were merged into India under the leadership of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel. In this sequence, on the morning of 6 April 1975, the Chogyal of Sikkim heard the sound of trucks of Indian soldiers outside the gate of his palace. The Indian army had surrounded the palace from all sides. The army quickly gained control of the 243 soldiers present at the palace and the independence of Sikkim came to an end. After this, the Chogyal was put under house arrest in his palace itself.
After this, a referendum was held in Sikkim. 97.5 percent of the people voted to go with India in the referendum. After which the 36th Constitutional Amendment Bill to make Sikkim the 22nd state of India was introduced in the Lok Sabha on 23 April 1975. It was passed by a vote of 299-11 on the same day. At the same time, this bill was passed in the Rajya Sabha on 26 April and as soon as President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed signed this bill on 15 May 1975, the rule of the Namgyal dynasty came to an end.
In 2002, China faced a great embarrassment when the seventeenth Karmapa Urgyen Trinley Dorji, who had been declared a lama by the Chinese government, escaped from Tibet in a dramatic fashion to the Rumtek Monastery in Sikkim. The Chinese officials got caught in a religious crisis and how to oppose this matter to the Indian government. Opposing India would mean that the Chinese government has directly accepted Sikkim as an integral part of India.
The official position of the Chinese government on Sikkim so far was that Sikkim is an independent state which India has encroached upon. China finally acknowledged Sikkim as a state of India in 2003, reducing the bitterness in India-China relations. In return, India accepted Tibet as an integral part of China.
In line with an important agreement signed between India and China, China released a formal map showing Sikkim clearly within India’s borderline. The agreement was signed by Chinese Prime Minister Wen Jiabao and India’s Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. On 6 July 2006, the Nathula Pass in the Himalayas was opened for border trade, indicating that there has been a sense of harmony between the two countries regarding this area.
Sikkim is a part of the interior mountain range of the Himalayas and is one of the smallest states of India. It is located in the northeastern part of the country, bounded by West Bengal to the south, Bhutan to the southeast, Nepal to the west, and the Tibet Autonomous Region of China on the north-eastern side. It is a very favorite place for tourists because of its beautiful mountains, deep valleys, and biodiversity. Gangtok is the largest city and capital of Sikkim. It is situated on the Shivalik hills at an altitude of about 5500 feet. Kangchenjunga, the world’s third-largest mountain, can also be seen from Gangtok.
Do you know that Sikkim became a part of India in 1975, but how, who ruled here before, etc. Let us study through this article.
Sikkim has a political past in which many important events have taken place which is related to the tribal rulers, British rule, and the accession of this state to India. Sikkim was ruled by Mon, Naong, and Chang until the Lepachas (17th century) took power in Sikkim. The most prominent empire here was that of the Chogyal.
In the 1890s, Sikkim became a Protectorate State under British India. ‘Protectorate State’ means that the security of Sikkim has gone into the hands of the British from now on. In return, the British also got the right to tax some parts.
This was part of the policy of the British, which established buffer states (small countries set up in the middle to prevent two large states from conflict) between China and British India, which included Nepal, Bhutan, and Sikkim.
Sikkim had got autonomy even before India’s independence from Britain. There was a monarchy in Sikkim and it was ruled by Raja Chogyal. When India became independent in 1947, there was a treaty of Sikkim with India, under which the defense, communication, and foreign affairs of Sikkim were decided to be looked after by India, and the independence of Sikkim was maintained.
That is, the protection of Sikkim had come into the hands of India after 1947, in which India had to meet the needs of Sikkim’s defense, diplomacy, and communication. In 1953, a State Council was formed to help the Chogyal in governance, which continued to function till 1973. Let us tell you here that the State Council was elected by the people themselves, that is, it was a democratic process.
The merger of Sikkim State in India
The treaty signed between India and Sikkim protected the status of Sikkim with the Chogyal as the king. Tashi Namgyal died in 1963 and was succeeded by his son Palden Thondup Namgyal. By the early 1970s, political turmoil continued in the state, due to which the people there demanded the removal of the monarchy and the establishment of a democratic system. Finally, in 1973, there was a widespread agitation against the Sikkim Durbar and thus there was a complete collapse of the administration. Let’s see how the fall happened?
The Government of India tried to bring equality to the state by appointing the Chief Administrator Mr. BS Das. Further events and elections led to the transformation of Sikkim from a protectorate to an ally. On 4 September 1947, Sikkim Congress leader, Kazi Lendup Dorji was elected as the Chief Minister of the state. The Chogyal, however, still remained as the constitutional head king. Shri BB Lal was the first Governor of Sikkim. The events leading to the confrontation between the Chogyal and the government caused Sikkim to become the full 22nd state of the Indian Union on 16 May 1975. The Chogyal Institute was later abolished.
To change the status of Sikkim in 1975, Kazi Lhendup Dorji recommended the inclusion of Sikkim in India.
The Constitution Amendment Bill was introduced in the Lok Sabha on 23 April 1975 to make Sikkim the 22nd state of India, which was passed by a vote of 299-11. This bill was passed in Rajya Sabha on 26 April and on 15 May, The bill was signed by President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed in 1975. Thus on 16 May 1975, Sikkim was formally made the 22nd state of the Republic of India. With Sikkim becoming a part of India, the rule of the Namgyal dynasty ended forever and Chogyal died of cancer in 1982. Lhendup Dorji became the Chief Minister there.
Sikkim was made a part of India as a co-state by the 35th Constitutional Amendment and Sikkim was given full statehood by the 36th Constitutional Amendment.
After all, what is the dispute between India and China over the state of Sikkim?
There is a borderline of about 3700 square kilometers between India and China. In 1962, both the countries have also fought a war over the border dispute. But even today, if seen in both countries regarding the border, the tension continues. This border dispute is related to the meeting point of the India-Bhutan and China border. There is a Doklam plateau adjacent to the Indian border in Sikkim, where China has to build a road. Some part of this Doklam border also falls in Bhutan.